Published: 22-08-2012, 11:57

Christmas in Colonial America: New York and Pennsylvania

Christmas in Colonial America

Christmas in Colonial America: The First American Christmas

Christmas in Colonial America: The First Christmas in the English Colonies

Christmas in Colonial America: Virginia and the South

Christmas in Colonial America: New England

Christmas in Colonial America: Conclusion

New York and Pennsylvania hosted significant numbers of Dutch and German immigrants. Denominational differences divided many of these immigrants on the subject of Christmas. In general, the Mennonites, Brethren, and amish rejected Christmas. The Lutherans, Reformed, and Moravians cherished the holiday and honored it with church services as well as folk celebrations (see also lovefeast and Christmas in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania). Like their English counterparts in the South, the pro-Christmas communities in New York and Pennsylvania ate and drank their way through the Christmas holiday. In addition, both the Dutch and the Germans brought a rich tradition of Christmas baking to this country, including the making of special Christmas cookies, such as gingerbread. In fact, the American English word "cookie” comes from the Dutch word koek, meaning "cake.” This in turn gave rise to the term koekje, meaning "cookie” or "little cake.”

German immigrants brought other Christmas customs with them as well. As early as the mid-eighteenth century Moravian communities in Pennsylvania were celebrating the day with Christmas pyramids. Other early German communities imported the beliefs and customs surrounding the German folk figures Christkindel and Knecht Ruprecht, whose gift-giving activities delighted children at Christmas time. Although the Germans probably also introduced the Christmas tree, no records of this custom can be found until the nineteenth century.

In addition to its large German population, Pennsylvania became home to many Scotch Irish and Quakers. Both the Scotch Irish, most of whom were Presbyterians, and the Quakers disapproved of Christmas celebrations in general. The Quakers adamantly opposed all raucous street revels, including those of German belsnickelers, mummers, and masqueraders of all kinds. In the nineteenth century, when Quakers dominated Philadelphia and Pennsylvania state government, they passed laws to prevent noisy merrymaking in the streets at Christmas time (see also Christmas in Nineteenth-Century America).

The German Christmas blended lively folk customs with devout religious observances. This combination eventually became typical of American Christmas celebrations. At least one researcher has concluded that increased immigration from the German-speaking countries in the second half of the eighteenth century profoundly influenced the American Christmas. The increasing number of Germans permitted their balanced approach to Christmas to spread among the wider population and so encouraged the festival to flourish in the United States.